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LECTURER :

Dr. Drs. SYAMSURIZAL, M.Si

STUDENT :

NAME : DERIO GUSVANDI
NIM : RSA1C111014

Minggu, 07 Oktober 2012

Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Organic compounds are divided into two classes : hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives

Hydrocarbon-derivative is a compound of carbon molecules and at least one other element that is not hydrogen


Organic halides are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms. Including organic halides General Freon (chlorofluorocarbons) and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene). Naming-halide lamps using the same format as branched-chain hydrocarbons. Branch was named by shortening the halogen name for fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, or iodo-. In drawing organic halides using IUPAC names, draw the parent chain and add a branch at the location specified in the name, for example:









        Cl Cl

         |   |

     H-C-C-H

         |   |

        H   H

1,2-dikloroetan

Fast-reacting organic halides is described from the idea that there is no strong covalent bonds broken - the rearrangement of electrons does not involve the separation of carbon atoms. The addition of halogen may be added to the resulting alkenes or alkynes alkanes. By adding a halogen to an alkene, the product can undergo another step. In addition, by adding halogen to the parent chain, bonds should be a single bond to accommodate halogen, for example:

Br Br Br Br
  | | | |
H-C = C-H + Br-Br => H-C-C-H
  | |
 Br Br


By adding hydrogen halides to unsaturated compounds will produce isomers

HHHHHHHHH
  | | | | | | | | |
HC = CCH + H-Cl => HCCCH OR HCCCH
      | | | | | | |
      H Cl H H H HCl


Substitution-reactions are reactions involving the rupture of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in an alkane or aromatic ring and the replacement of a hydrogen atom by atom or group of atoms. With light energy allows substitution reaction to move to the level seen for example:

C3H8 + BR2 + light => C3H7Br + HBR
 
Through the substitution reaction, the reaction to the product name, it only shows the number of locations replacement, followed by halogen prefix (eg Bromo-) and then declare the parent chain type. Also shows both created from the reaction product substitution (hydrogen bromide) for example:

propane + bromine => 1-bromopropane + hydrogen bromide
 
Removal is an organic reaction in which an alkyl halide reacts with the hydroxide ions to produce an alkene by removing a hydrogen ion and a halide of molecules
 

H H H H H H
  | | | | | |
H-C-C-C-H + OH => H-C = C-C-H + H-O + Br
  | | | | |
  H H H BRH


Alcohol has properties that can be explained by the presence of hydroxyl (OH-) functional group attached to the hydrocarbon chain. Short-chain alcohols are very soluble in water because they form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Alcohol is used as a solvent in organic reactions because they are effective for both polar compounds and non-polar. For the name of the alcohol, the-e is dropped from the final name of alkanes and substituted with-ol for example:
 
Methane => methanol
 
Methanol is also called wood alcohol because it never made ​​by heating wood shavings in the absence of air. Today, methanol is made by combining carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high temperature and pressure using a catalyst. Methanol, however, is toxic to humans. Consuming small amounts can cause blindness or death. When naming alcohols with more than two carbon atoms, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated. Alcohol containing more than one hydroxyl group is called polyalcohols, such as their name indicates the position of the hydroxyl group:
 
1,2-ethanediol
 
Alcohol undergo elimination reaction to produce alkenes via catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid, which removes or eliminates hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups.

H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-H + Asam => H-C = C-H + H-O
  | | |
  H OH H
 
acid + ethanol => ethene + water


Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons (C8H18 for example) that Contain no atoms of oxygen. Gasohol contains ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH, roomates does Contain oxygen. The addition of alcohol to gasoline, therefore, adds oxygen to the fuel. Since carbon monoxide forms when there is an insufficient supply of oxygen, the addition of alcohol to gasoline helps cut down on carbon monoxide emissions. An atmospheric inversion, with Increased air pollution, is Likely during the Dates shown on the pump, so that is when the ethanol is added.
The OH group is polar and short chain alcohols are soluble in both nonpolar alkanes and water.
If an alcohol contains two OH groups it is a diol (sometimes called a glycol).
An alcohol with three OH groups is called a triplet (sometimes called a glycerol).


Ether is a family of organic compounds containing oxygen atoms bonded between two groups of hydrocarbons, and has a general formula R1-O-R2. To add oxy ether name for the group prefixes for smaller hydrocarbons and join the alkane name of the larger hydrocarbon group, for example:

CH3-O-C2H5
methoxyethane

Ether has a low solubility in water, low boiling point, and had no evidence of hydrogen bonding. Ether chemistry changes when treated with reagents only strong in strong condition. Ether alcohol formed by the condensation reaction. Condensation-reaction is the joining of two molecules and the elimination of a small molecule, usually water. Carbonyl functional group,-CO-, consists of carbon atoms double-bonded oxygen atoms covalently


Aldehyde has a carbonyl group at the terminal carbon atom of the chain. To name an aldehyde, replacing the final-e of the corresponding alkane name with the suffix-al. Small-molecule aldehydes have sharp, irritating odor while larger molecules have the smell of flowers and used to make perfume.
 

A Ketone has a carbonyl group is present everywhere in the carbon chain except at the end of the chain. The difference in the position of the carbonyl group affects the chemical reactivity, and allows us to distinguish aldehydes from ketones empirically. To name a ketone, replacing e-end of the corresponding alkane name with-one.

The simplest ketone is acetone (propanone), CH3COCH3.

Family of organic compounds, carboxylic acids containing carboxyl functional group,-COOH, which includes both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Carboxylic acid found in citrus fruits, and other foods with nature has a sour taste. Carboxylic acid has a distinctive smell (like sweat from a person's leg). The molecules of a carboxylic acid polar and form hydrogen bonds well with one another and with the water molecules. Acidic nature of carboxylic acid, so that the litmus test to separate hydrocarbons from other derivatives. To name a carboxylic acid, replacing e-end of the alkane name with-oic, followed by a "sour" said Methanoic-acid, HCOOH, is the first member of the family of carboxylic acids. Some acid containing two or three carbonyl groups such as oxalic acid, and citric acid 


COOH CH2-COOH
 | |
COOH HO-C-COOH
 |
CH2-COOH


oxalic acid citric acid


When carboxylic acids undergo condensation reactions, in which the carboxylic acid combines with other reactants, forming two products - organic compounds and water


These red ants, like other ants, make the simplest of the organic acids, formic acid. The sting of bees, ants, and some plants contains formic acid, along with some other irritating materials. Formic acid is HCOOH.

Esterification is a condensation reaction in which a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to produce an ester and water,
Carboxylic acid + alcohol => ester + water
Ester functional group similar to the acid, except that the hydrogen atoms of the carboxyl group is replaced by a branch of hydrocarbons. Esther is responsible for the odor of fruits and flowers and is also added to foods for flavor and taste. To name esters, specify the name of the alkyl group of the alcohol used in the esterification reaction. Further changes to the end of the name of the acid "-oic acid" to "-oate"
Methanol + ethanoic acid => methyl ethanoate + water
Artificial flavorings are made by mixing synthetic ester to give the same smell of natural ingredients.


An Amide composed of the carboxyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom. Amides can be formed in the condensation reaction. Amida occurs in proteins, large molecules found in all living organisms. Peptide bond joining amino acids together in a protein. To name amides, alkanes have names with the same number of carbon atoms, with the e-ending replaced by the suffix-amide. Change the ending of the carboxylic acids of the "-oic acid" to-amide to have the results of the same name for example:
Ethanamide


Amin consists of one or more hydrocarbon groups attached to the nitrogen atom. Through X-ray diffraction revealed that the amine functional group is a nitrogen atom bound by a single covalent bond to one, two, or three carbon atoms. Amin is a polar substance back very soluble in water because they form strong hydrogen bonds with each other and to water. Amin has a weird, horrible smell (eg smell of rotten fish). Name amines including the names of alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, followed by the suffix-amine for example. Methylamine. Amin with one, two, or three hydrocarbon groups attached to the central nitrogen atom is referred to as primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary amine is when a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom is replaced by a hydrocarbon group
-Secondary amine is when two hydrocarbon groups replace hydrogen atoms and a tertiary amine replacing all hydrogen atoms with hydrocarbon groups. Amin used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. A group of amines which are found in many plants called alkaloids. Many alkaloids affect the functioning of the central nervous system of animals.

Substitution - alkane / aromatic + halogen  + => organic halide light + hydrogen halide
Elimination - alkyl halide + OH => alkene + water |  water + + halide ion
Elimination - acid + alcohol => alkene + water



Question :
  1.      Can we create fuels like gasoline by exploiting the properties of Derivatife hydrocarbons derived from organic waste that often come without waiting to millions of years in advance, if it can be done please explain how the mechanism.
  2. What is the purpose of them and their usefulness in our daily lives from alcohol used as a solvent in organic reactions, what mechanism can alcohol as a solvent effective in both polar and non-polar 

Hydrocarbon Derivative



7 komentar:

  1. okey derio I waant to try answer your question (Number 2) alcohol may be used as an organic solvent because alcohol was easily blend both polar and non-polar.

    BalasHapus
    Balasan
    1. thanks for the the answer Risna
      but, why is it easy to bind to compounds stable to polar and non-polar
      please help me to answer that question

      Hapus
  2. In my opinion, the manufacture of fuels (such as gasoline) from the application of hydrocarbon derivatives could be done, it's just that more research is needed on the subject to make it happen. For example, alkanes, as part of the hydrocarbon,alkane derivatives have many applications.

    The alkanes are highly combustible and are valuable as clean fuels, burning to form water and carbon dioxide. Methane, ethane, propane and butane are gases and used directly as fuels. Alkanes from pentane up to around C17H36 are liquids. Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane. Kerosene contains alkanes from about n=10 to n=16. Above n=17 they are solids at room temperature. Alkanes with higher values of n are found in diesel fuel, fuel oil, petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, motor oils, and for the highest values of n, asphalt.

    Alkane derivatives are used in hundreds of products such as plastics, paints, drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insedticides, etc., so the fossil fuel resource from which we obtain the alkanes is much too valuable to burn it all as a motor fuel.
    So when doing research or further experiments on other hydrocarbon derivatives, the possibility of making many other fuel can be made

    BalasHapus
  3. thanks for your answer
    then can you mention any reactions required in the manufacture of compounds such as gasoline derived from organic waste
    please help me to solve the problem

    BalasHapus
  4. I think alcohol can't easily dissolve with non-polar compounds but if it happens there will be a mixture of a strong attraction between the polar solvent and polar molecules in the mixture. Things happened will not be as strong attractions between the hydrocarbon chains that attaches to the silica (stationary phase) and polar molecules in solution. Therefore, polar molecules in the mixture will spend the time to get moving with the solvent.
    Non-polar compounds of the mixture will tend to form a hydrocarbon group attraction due to van der Waals dispersion. These compounds will also be less soluble in the solvent because of the need to break hydrogen bonds, as well as the compounds are in molecules such as water or methanol. Therefore, these compounds will spend time in solution and will move slowly

    BalasHapus
  5. I'll try to answer
    1.there is a fuel such as gasoline by exploiting the properties of hydrocarbons derived from organic waste derivatife
    example (biofuels) as a fuel substitute conventional fuels on the environment, because it can reduce emissions of CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons. for how organic waste can be a waste in mechanism so far I do not know but there is a fuel that harnesses the derivatife hydrocarbons derived from organic waste such as biofuels


    2.alcohol is often used as a solvent to carry out a number of organic reactions. In everyday life, there are some members of groups that have keglunaan special alcohol, eg methanol is used as an anti-freezing, ethanol is used as a heat source because it has a clear flame and heat, and lauryl alkhol used in the manufacture of detergents.

    BalasHapus
  6. The name of the tertiary alcohol you gave as an example should be 3-methylprop-3-ol

    BalasHapus

Fish